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The Battle of Refrigerants: R-32 vs. R-454B

As the world strives to reduce its carbon footprint, the HVAC industry has actively sought alternative refrigerants to replace hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which have a high global warming potential (GWP). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the HFC phase-out plan in 2022, intending to reduce HFC production and consumption by 85% over 15 years. Because of this, HVAC manufacturers are actively seeking viable alternatives for replacing the HFC refrigerant R410A.

Two promising low-GWP refrigerant contenders are R-32 and R-454B. Both refrigerants have gained traction for their lower GWP and energy efficiency, but they have unique characteristics and considerations that set them apart.


R-32, difluoromethane, has emerged as a popular alternative to traditional HFC refrigerants. Here are some key points to consider for selecting equipment that uses R-32.

  • Low GWP: R-32 boasts a significantly lower GWP than its predecessors, making it an environmentally friendly choice. With a GWP of 675, it outperforms commonly used HFCs by a large margin. Additionally, according to Daikin, the total emissions for R-32 are 13.6% lower than R-410A.

  • Energy efficiency: R-32 is more energy-efficient compared to older refrigerants. It requires less power consumption, reducing operating costs and lowering energy demand.

  • Flammability concerns: One notable drawback of R-32 is its flammability. While it falls into the A2L safety classification, which indicates lower flammability levels, proper handling, installation, and maintenance protocols are crucial to ensure safe operation.

  • Compatibility and retrofitting: R-32 is not a drop-in replacement for all existing systems. Retrofitting may be required, and compatibility with existing equipment should be thoroughly assessed before transitioning to R-32.

  • Refrigerant charge size: up to 40% smaller than R-410A


R-454B, also known as Opteon™ XL41, is another promising alternative refrigerant that has gained recognition recently. Let's explore its features:

  • Ultra-low GWP: R-454B boasts an extremely low GWP of 466, making it an attractive choice for companies seeking to align with stringent environmental regulations and sustainability goals. If compared to R-32, the total emissions are slightly higher than R-32, but still 13.1% lower than R-410A.

  • Non-flammable: Unlike R-32, R-454B is classified as non-flammable, eliminating concerns regarding flammability and simplifying safety considerations.

  • Similar performance to R-410A: R-454B closely matches the performance characteristics of R-410A, a commonly used HFC refrigerant. This similarity allows for easier retrofitting and reduces the need for extensive system modifications.

  • Compatibility: R-454B is designed as a drop-in replacement for R-410A, allowing for a smoother transition and minimizing the need for equipment modifications or replacements.

  • Refrigerant charge size: up to 10% smaller than R-410A

Both R-32 and R-454B present viable alternatives to high-GWP HFC refrigerants. R-32 excels in energy efficiency and has a lower GWP than many alternatives, but its flammability requires careful consideration. On the other hand, R-454B boasts an ultra-low GWP and non-flammability, making it an attractive choice for retrofitting existing R-410A systems. One thing that is interesting to note about R-454B is that it 68.9% of its composition is…you guessed it…R-32.

Ultimately, the choice between R-32 and R-454B depends on several factors, including the specific application, existing equipment, safety requirements, and environmental goals. Consulting with HVAC professionals and considering the long-term implications will help make an informed decision. As the industry evolves, more alternatives with improved properties may emerge, providing even more choices for a high-efficiency and sustainable future.

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